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Ballastwater Treatment

biomarineship2cargo

Modern ships have greatly increased in size and weight over the years. However, the need for ballast water treatment is faced by most trade ships, from small to gigantic. In order to remain controllable, ships take on water at times to ensure stability, trim and structural integrity.

Ships carry ballast water when empty or partly loaded, to increase their stability and balance. When a ship is empty, ballast tanks are filled with water: when it loads cargo, the ballast water is discharged. This presents a problem, as water from one location is dumped in a completely different environment. The introduction of new organisms to new environments via a ship’s ballast water is a major concern world wide. Newly introduced species may survive and establish a population in the new environment multiplying in dramatic proportions. As a result, whole ecosystems are being changed, endangering wildlife and environments both in the sea and on shore. Moreover, diseases, bacteria and virus can be introduced and there are recorded case where humans have been greatly effected.

Ships are getting even larger, faster and the amount of traffic across the oceans is expected to increase rapidly during the coming decades and therefore the chance of non-indigenous organisms being transported around the world becomes higher with every moment.

The ballast water systems available on the market treat seawater by pumping it into the ballast water tanks with the usage of one of the following procedures:

a) mechanical/physical injection through cavitation or using ultrasound
b) through radiation by exploiting the effect of UV
c) through the addition of active oxygen (e.g. ozone or peracetic acid or hydroxyl radicals)
d) through the addition of active chlorine such as hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide

Treatment methods a) and b) are only effective in the ballast water pipe going to the ballast water tank, with undistributed regrowth of microbes and microorganisms occurring after a brief period. Especially the sediment present in the ballast water tanks provide breeding grounds during the voyage for the survival and further reproduction of organisms.

The longest effective duration of the above mentioned physical ballast water treatment methods a) and b) is achieved through the effect of ultraviolet light on the seawater. The regrowth of microbes also occurs here only after a few days. Seawater treated with ultraviolet light does NOT have any effect on the sediment within the ballast water tanks.

The treatment of ballast water with chemical oxidizing agents [c) and d)] is little better. The decomposition of paracetic acid ozone, hydroxyl ions, hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide agents in seawater is reducing significantly again by the presence of ballast tank sediment. The oxidizing agents can only penetrate a few millimeters into the sediment layer through diffusion in this short active time of a few hours, before it is rendered inactive itself through chemical decomposition.

A practical aspect of the oxidizing agent cited is that the ballast water is treated to the IMO D2 Standard, but the effect can only be reliably guaranteed when the ballast water tanks are free of sediment. Microbes and microorganisms have a safe haven in the lower sediment layers if this is not the case (as it is most frequently the situation) and can reproduce there as soon as the oxidizing agent added loses its effectiveness as a result of decomposition.

For example, technical paracetic acid in an application concentration of approximately 175ppm can inhibit the growth of microbes and microorganisms for around 7 to 8 days, after which regrowth commences. Due to the high level of polarity, peracetic acid can only penetrate a few mm into the sediment. The IMO is aware of the regrowth problem and it was the topic of various debates and symposia. It is the overlooked weak point of so many systems, bound to have problems in the long run.

biomarineship1sundown


read more

Ballastwater Treatment

biomarineship2cargo

Modern ships have greatly increased in size and weight over the years. However, the need for ballast water treatment is faced by most trade ships, from small to gigantic. In order to remain controllable, ships take on water at times to ensure stability, trim and structural integrity.

Ships carry ballast water when empty or partly loaded, to increase their stability and balance. When a ship is empty, ballast tanks are filled with water: when it loads cargo, the ballast water is discharged. This presents a problem, as water from one location is dumped in a completely different environment. The introduction of new organisms to new environments via a ship’s ballast water is a major concern world wide. Newly introduced species may survive and establish a population in the new environment multiplying in dramatic proportions. As a result, whole ecosystems are being changed, endangering wildlife and environments both in the sea and on shore. Moreover, diseases, bacteria and virus can be introduced and there are recorded case where humans have been greatly effected.

Ships are getting even larger, faster and the amount of traffic across the oceans is expected to increase rapidly during the coming decades and therefore the chance of non-indigenous organisms being transported around the world becomes higher with every moment.

The ballast water systems available on the market treat seawater by pumping it into the ballast water tanks with the usage of one of the following procedures:

a) mechanical/physical injection through cavitation or using ultrasound
b) through radiation by exploiting the effect of UV
c) through the addition of active oxygen (e.g. ozone or peracetic acid or hydroxyl radicals)
d) through the addition of active chlorine such as hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide

Treatment methods a) and b) are only effective in the ballast water pipe going to the ballast water tank, with undistributed regrowth of microbes and microorganisms occurring after a brief period. Especially the sediment present in the ballast water tanks provide breeding grounds during the voyage for the survival and further reproduction of organisms.

The longest effective duration of the above mentioned physical ballast water treatment methods a) and b) is achieved through the effect of ultraviolet light on the seawater. The regrowth of microbes also occurs here only after a few days. Seawater treated with ultraviolet light does NOT have any effect on the sediment within the ballast water tanks.

The treatment of ballast water with chemical oxidizing agents [c) and d)] is little better. The decomposition of paracetic acid ozone, hydroxyl ions, hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide agents in seawater is reducing significantly again by the presence of ballast tank sediment. The oxidizing agents can only penetrate a few millimeters into the sediment layer through diffusion in this short active time of a few hours, before it is rendered inactive itself through chemical decomposition.

A practical aspect of the oxidizing agent cited is that the ballast water is treated to the IMO D2 Standard, but the effect can only be reliably guaranteed when the ballast water tanks are free of sediment. Microbes and microorganisms have a safe haven in the lower sediment layers if this is not the case (as it is most frequently the situation) and can reproduce there as soon as the oxidizing agent added loses its effectiveness as a result of decomposition.

For example, technical paracetic acid in an application concentration of approximately 175ppm can inhibit the growth of microbes and microorganisms for around 7 to 8 days, after which regrowth commences. Due to the high level of polarity, peracetic acid can only penetrate a few mm into the sediment. The IMO is aware of the regrowth problem and it was the topic of various debates and symposia. It is the overlooked weak point of so many systems, bound to have problems in the long run.

biomarineship1sundown


read more

Ballastwater Treatment

biomarineship2cargo

Modern ships have greatly increased in size and weight over the years. However, the need for ballast water treatment is faced by most trade ships, from small to gigantic. In order to remain controllable, ships take on water at times to ensure stability, trim and structural integrity.

Ships carry ballast water when empty or partly loaded, to increase their stability and balance. When a ship is empty, ballast tanks are filled with water: when it loads cargo, the ballast water is discharged. This presents a problem, as water from one location is dumped in a completely different environment. The introduction of new organisms to new environments via a ship’s ballast water is a major concern world wide. Newly introduced species may survive and establish a population in the new environment multiplying in dramatic proportions. As a result, whole ecosystems are being changed, endangering wildlife and environments both in the sea and on shore. Moreover, diseases, bacteria and virus can be introduced and there are recorded case where humans have been greatly effected.

Ships are getting even larger, faster and the amount of traffic across the oceans is expected to increase rapidly during the coming decades and therefore the chance of non-indigenous organisms being transported around the world becomes higher with every moment.

The ballast water systems available on the market treat seawater by pumping it into the ballast water tanks with the usage of one of the following procedures:

a) mechanical/physical injection through cavitation or using ultrasound
b) through radiation by exploiting the effect of UV
c) through the addition of active oxygen (e.g. ozone or peracetic acid or hydroxyl radicals)
d) through the addition of active chlorine such as hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide

Treatment methods a) and b) are only effective in the ballast water pipe going to the ballast water tank, with undistributed regrowth of microbes and microorganisms occurring after a brief period. Especially the sediment present in the ballast water tanks provide breeding grounds during the voyage for the survival and further reproduction of organisms.

The longest effective duration of the above mentioned physical ballast water treatment methods a) and b) is achieved through the effect of ultraviolet light on the seawater. The regrowth of microbes also occurs here only after a few days. Seawater treated with ultraviolet light does NOT have any effect on the sediment within the ballast water tanks.

The treatment of ballast water with chemical oxidizing agents [c) and d)] is little better. The decomposition of paracetic acid ozone, hydroxyl ions, hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide agents in seawater is reducing significantly again by the presence of ballast tank sediment. The oxidizing agents can only penetrate a few millimeters into the sediment layer through diffusion in this short active time of a few hours, before it is rendered inactive itself through chemical decomposition.

A practical aspect of the oxidizing agent cited is that the ballast water is treated to the IMO D2 Standard, but the effect can only be reliably guaranteed when the ballast water tanks are free of sediment. Microbes and microorganisms have a safe haven in the lower sediment layers if this is not the case (as it is most frequently the situation) and can reproduce there as soon as the oxidizing agent added loses its effectiveness as a result of decomposition.

For example, technical paracetic acid in an application concentration of approximately 175ppm can inhibit the growth of microbes and microorganisms for around 7 to 8 days, after which regrowth commences. Due to the high level of polarity, peracetic acid can only penetrate a few mm into the sediment. The IMO is aware of the regrowth problem and it was the topic of various debates and symposia. It is the overlooked weak point of so many systems, bound to have problems in the long run.

biomarineship1sundown


read more

Canals In Colour
Cinco Años De Teatro En Guadalajara, 1992 1996